März Circus William startet diesjährige Tournee in Fürstenwalde. Vom 1. bis März präsentiert das Familienunternehmen aus Müncheberg. Sept. Publikumsmagnet: Raubtiertrainer Manuel Wille vom Circus William zeigt im rund zweistündigen Zirkusprogramm eine Dressur mit Löwen und. Juni Das Müncheberger Traditionsunternehmen Circus William ist vom – mit seinem neuen Programm zum jährlichen. She divorced in and left the Ringling show oscar verleihung livestream establish herself as a successful agent and circus impresario. The circus took the name of Franz Althoff. Aber er war vollkommen panisch und hat in keinster Weise auf meine Kommandos reagiert. Spektakuläre Steiger und Da Capos runden diese Wladimir und vitali klitschko ab. Carola quickly returned to the Althoff fold with their son, Reinhold, Jr. Cl gruppe gladbach völlig normal charakterisiert er die Panik, die der junge Löwe dann bekam. To his delight, he was eventually asked to replace her spielergebnisse bundesliga the big cage for one performance: Aus Tschechien sehen die Zuschauer Marketa. Thus oscars 2009Carola had rejoined forces with her brother Franz to help their father manage cooles logo circus. More consequently, Carola Williams helped in rebuilding the Basilika St.
A skilled equestrian, Astley demonstrated trick riding, riding in a circle rather than a straight line as his rivals did, and thus chanced on the format which was later named a "circus".
In he hired acrobats, tightrope walkers, jugglers and a clown to fill in the pauses between acts. Performances developed significantly through the next fifty years, with large-scale theatrical battle reenactments becoming a significant feature.
The traditional format, whereby a ringmaster introduces a varied selection of acts that mostly perform choreographed acts to traditional music, developed in the latter part of the 19th century and continued almost universally to be the main style of circus up until the s.
As styles of performance have developed since the time of Astley, so too have the types of venues where these circuses have performed.
The earliest modern circuses were performed in open air structures with limited covered seating. From the late 18th to late 19th century, custom-made circus buildings often wooden were built with various types of seating, a centre ring, and sometimes a stage.
The traditional large tents, commonly known as "Big Tops" were introduced in the midth century as touring circuses superseded static venues.
These tents eventually became the most common venue and remain so to the present day. Contemporary circuses perform in a variety of venues including tents, theatres and casinos.
This dimension was adopted by Astley in the late 18th century as the minimum diameter that enabled an acrobatic horse rider to stand upright on a cantering horse to perform their tricks.
Contemporary circus has been credited with reviving the circus tradition since the s when a number of groups introduced circuses based almost solely on human skills and which drew from other performing art skills and styles.
The modern and commonly held idea of a circus is of a Big Top with various acts providing entertainment therein. However, the history of circuses is more complex, with historians disagreeing on its origin, as well as revisions being done about the history due to the changing nature of historical research, and the ongoing circus phenomenon.
For many, circus history begins with Englishman Philip Astley , while for others its origins go back much further—to Roman times. In Ancient Rome, the circus was a building for the exhibition of horse and chariot races, equestrian shows, staged battles, gladiatorial combat and displays of and fights with trained animals.
The circus of Rome were similar to the ancient Greek hippodromes , although circuses served varying purposes and differed in design and construction, and for events that involved re-enactments of naval battles, the circus was flooded with water.
The Roman circus buildings were, however, not circular but rectangular with semi circular ends. The lower seats were reserved for persons of rank, There were also various state boxes for the giver of the games and his friends.
The circus was the only public spectacle at which men and women were not separated. The first circus in the city of Rome was the Circus Maximus , in the valley between the Palatine and Aventine hills.
It was constructed during the monarchy and, at first, built completely from wood. After being rebuilt several times, the final version of the Circus Maximus could seat , people; it was built of stone and measured m in length and 90m in width.
A fourth circus was constructed by Maxentius ; its ruins have helped archaeologists reconstruct the Roman circus. For some time after the fall of Rome, large circus buildings fell out of use as centres of mass entertainment.
Instead, itinerant performers, animal trainers and showmen travelled between towns throughout Europe, performing at local fairs. The origin of the modern circus has been attributed to Philip Astley , who was born in Newcastle-under-Lyme, England.
He became a cavalry officer who set up the first modern amphitheatre for the display of horse riding tricks in Lambeth, London on 4 April Astley was followed by Andrew Ducrow , whose feats of horsemanship had much to do with establishing the traditions of the circus, which were perpetuated by Henglers and Sangers celebrated shows in a later generation.
In England circuses were often held in purpose built buildings in large cities, such as the London Hippodrome , which was built as a combination of the circus, the menagerie and the variety theatre, where wild animals such as lions and elephants from time to time appeared in the ring, and where convulsions of nature such as floods, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions have been produced with an extraordinary wealth of realistic display.
He began his theatrical career with Hughes Royal Circus in London in the s, and travelled from England in to establish his first circus in Philadelphia.
In the Americas during the first two decades of the 19th century, the Circus of Pepin and Breschard toured from Montreal to Havana, building circus theatres in many of the cities it visited.
In , Joshuah Purdy Brown was the first circus owner to use a large canvas tent for the circus performance. The American circus was revolutionized by P.
Barnum and William Cameron Coup , who launched the travelling P. Coup also introduced the first multiple ringed circuses, and was also the first circus entrepreneur to use circus trains to transport the circus between towns, a practice that continues today.
In , the equestrian Thomas Taplin Cooke returned to England from the United States, bringing with him a circus tent. Soullier was the first circus owner to introduce Chinese acrobatics to the European circus when he returned from his travels in and Tourniaire was the first to introduce the performing art to Ranga where it became extremely popular.
This format was adopted by European circuses at the turn of the 20th century. The influence of the American circus brought about a considerable change in the character of the modern circus.
In arenas too large for speech to be easily audible, the traditional comic dialog of the clown assumed a less prominent place than formerly, while the vastly increased wealth of stage properties relegated to the background the old-fashioned equestrian feats, which were replaced by more ambitious acrobatic performances, and by exhibitions of skill, strength and daring, requiring the employment of immense numbers of performers and often of complicated and expensive machinery.
In , the State University of Circus and Variety Arts, better known as the Moscow Circus School, was established; performers were trained using methods developed from the Soviet gymnastics program.
When the Moscow State Circus company began international tours in the s, its levels of originality and artistic skill were widely applauded.
Circuses from China, drawing on Chinese traditions of acrobatics , like the Chinese State Circus are also popular touring acts.
The International Circus Festival of Monte-Carlo  has been held in Monte Carlo since and was the first of many international awards for circus performers.
From the late 19th century through the first half of the 20th century, travelling circuses were a major form of spectator entertainment in the US and attracted huge attention whenever they arrived in a city.
From the s onward, circuses attracted growing criticism from animal rights activists. Many circuses went out of business or were forced to merge with other circus companies.
Nonetheless, a good number of travelling circuses are still active in various parts of the world, ranging from small family enterprises to three-ring extravaganzas.
Other companies found new ways to draw in the public with innovative new approaches to the circus form itself. Contemporary circus originally known as nouveau cirque is a recent performing arts movement that originated in the s in Australia, Canada, France,  the West Coast of the United States, and the United Kingdom.
Contemporary circus combines traditional circus skills and theatrical techniques to convey a story or theme. Compared with the traditional circus, the contemporary genre of circus tends to focus more attention on the overall aesthetic impact, on character and story development, and on the use of lighting design , original music, and costume design to convey thematic or narrative content.
For aesthetic or economic reasons, contemporary circus productions may sometimes be staged in theatres rather than in large outdoor tents.
Music used in the production is often composed exclusively for that production, and aesthetic influences are drawn as much from contemporary culture as from circus history.
Animal acts appear rarely in contemporary circus in contrast to traditional circus where animal acts have been a significant part of circus entertainment.
Early examples of nouveau cirque companies include: More recent examples include: Company PURE Cirkus  was founded in the subgenre of "cirque noir" in , and in Northern England , United Kingdom , Skewed Circus  combines punk, rap, dance music, comedy, and stunts to deliver "pop-circus" entertainment to young urban audiences.
A traditional circus performance is often led by a ringmaster who has a role similar to a Master of Ceremonies. The ringmaster presents performers, speaks to the audience, and generally keeps the show moving.
The activity of the circus traditionally takes place within a ring; large circuses may have multiple rings, like the six-ringed Moscow State Circus.
A circus often travels with its own band, whose instrumentation in the United States has traditionally included brass instruments , drums, glockenspiel , and sometimes the distinctive sound of the calliope.
Common acts include a variety of acrobatics , gymnastics including tumbling and trampoline , aerial acts such as trapeze , aerial silk , corde lisse , contortion , stilts , and a variety of other routines.
Juggling is one of the most common acts in a circus; the combination of juggling and gymnastics is called equilibristics and include acts like plate spinning and the rolling globe.
Acts like these are some of the most common, and the most traditional. Clowns are common to most circuses and are typically skilled in many circus acts; "clowns getting into the act" is a very familiar theme in any circus.
Daredevil stunt acts and sideshow acts are also parts of some circus acts, these activities may include human cannonball , chapeaugraphy , fire eating , breathing , and dancing , knife throwing , magic shows , sword swallowing , or strongman.
A popular sideshow attraction from the early 19th century was the flea circus , where fleas were attached to props and viewed through a Fresnel lens.
A variety of animals have historically been used in acts. While the types of animals used vary from circus to circus, big cats namely lions , tigers , and leopards , camels , llamas , elephants , zebras , horses , donkeys , birds like parrots and cockatoos , sea lions , bears , monkeys , and domestic animals such as cats and dogs are the most common.
The earliest involvement of animals in circus was just the display of exotic creatures in a menagerie. Going as far back as the early eighteenth century, exotic animals were transported to North America for display, and menageries were a popular form of entertainment.
Soon elephants and big cats were displayed as well. Van Amburgh entered a cage with several big cats in , and is generally considered to be the first wild animal trainer in American circus history.
Animal welfare groups have documented many cases of animal cruelty in the training of performing circus animals. According to PETA, although the US Animal Welfare Act does not permit any sort of punishment that puts the animals in discomfort,  trainers will still go against this law and use such things as electric rods and bull hooks.
On behalf of the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality of the Netherlands, Wageningen University conducted an investigation into the welfare of circus animals in Based on these findings, the researchers called for more stringent regulation regarding the welfare of circus animals.
In , the Dutch government announced a ban on the use of wild circus animals. In testimony in U. District Court in , Ringling Bros.
Feld stated that these practices are necessary to protect circus workers. But it was much more difficult in Nazi Germany. When the Nazis took power, the Althoffs began to harbor Jews in their traveling circuses, whether circus artists or people they took with them as simple employees.
This was done very discretely, of course, and with the help of their amenable employees—who were, after all, members like them of the international, tightly knit Circus Community.
Furthermore, for the Althoffs and for many others in the circus world, where families are nearly always related to a degree the "Jewish Question" was a very personal matter: Nonetheless, Harry and Carola Williams were back in business as soon as June with their own Great Circus Williams Show —whose grand English title was indeed brand new, but whose equipment and big top The circus tent.
The main tent of a traveling circus, where the show is performed, as opposed to the other tops. Chapiteau they had rented. Harry held a British passport and had no problem getting all the necessary permits from the Allied occupation forces.
The postwar years were a booming period for the European circus industry, and Germany was no exception—at least as soon as the German circuses were authorized to work again.
The mighty Circus Krone, for one, which had had a dubious association in Munich with the burgeoning NSDAP, had to buy its way out of forced retirement.
Be that as it may, having started early in the game, the Williamses were already thriving, and soon able to purchase their own equipment.
In , Harry and Carola Williams decided to build a permanent wooden construction French A temporary circus building, originally made of wood and canvas, and later, of steel elements supporting a canvas top and wooden wall.
Also known as a "semi-construction. To find building materials in Cologne in these early postwar years was not easy, and Harry Williams traded elephant dung, a powerful fertilizer, for materials.
Circus Williamsbau opened its doors in June With its 2, seats, it was the only large public meeting place in Cologne—a city that laid in ruins after the heavy Allied bombings of WWII.
Jazz was still emerging from a position of subculture in Germany. Moreover, the Williamses were strongly involved in the revival of their new hometown, Cologne.
Its successor, Hennes II , was also donated by the Williams family. More consequently, Carola Williams helped in rebuilding the Basilika St.
Apolsten Basilica of the Holy Apostles in Cologne-Neumarkt, and also participated in establishing a new hospital. Elfriede was desperately looking for a job, and since Carola Williams had an opening for a seamstress, she offered her the position, while thirteen-year-old Gunther—to whom his visit to the circus was a revelation—went to help in the animal department.
When she quit, however, she was glad to leave her son with the Williamses as an apprentice. Gunther, who had had a rather miserable childhood, was actually quite happy with his new condition.
In time, the generous-hearted Williamses would consider Gunther as their own son. Jean Michon , who was attacked by a lion while performing at Circus Williamsbau in For the Christmas season, the Williamses and their animals were hired by Tom Arnold for his annual circus production at the Harringay Arena in London.
But it was to be a fateful engagement: It was evidently a terrible family—as well as professional—tragedy.
Left alone at the helm of Circus Williams, Carola leased it to her first husband, Harry Barlay, for the season.
She sent Gunther Gebel to her brother Franz, who began to teach Gunther elephant training in his circus Franz Althoff had a important herd of thirteen elephants ; much too aware of the hazards of circus life, Carola also decided that her children, Alfons and Jeanette, would receive a proper academic education.
Then she went to Italy to help her brother Adolf, whose circus had gone bankrupt. Carola was definitely back at the helm of Circus Williams for its season.
She had invited Adolf Althoff, now without a circus, to come and help her. Adolf brought with him his wife, Maria, an equestrienne A female equestrian, or horse trainer, horse presenter, or acrobat on horseback.
Adolf and Carola would manage the two circuses Williams and Hagenbeck conjointly until In the absence of Alfons and Jeanette, Carola also began to give young Gunther Gebel more responsibilities, notably in the animal department.
When Adolf eventually left Circus Williams, Gunther took over its growing herd of elephants. He began to perform as a jockey Classic equestrian act in which the participants ride standing in various attitudes on a galoping horse, perform various jumps while on the horse, and from the ground to the horse, and perform classic horse-vaulting exercises.
The jockey Classic equestrian act in which the participants ride standing in various attitudes on a galoping horse, perform various jumps while on the horse, and from the ground to the horse, and perform classic horse-vaulting exercises.
Jakob Enders took over the trick Any specific exercise in a circus act. Gunther Gebel fell head over heels for her, and his interest for big cats grew exponentially.
To his delight, he was eventually asked to replace her in the big cage for one performance: This was his first experience working with cats in the ring, and he liked it.
She was happily married. GCD , the German circus fans association—a testimony to the position that Circus Williams had reached in the German and European circus world.
Maria Athoff presented a group of ponies; Adolf, an ensemble of twelve horses at liberty "Liberty act", "Horses at liberty": Under its very recognizable oblong big top The circus tent.
As it did for its Swedish foray in , it often toured abroad in association with major local circuses: It was indeed a clever and much safer way to visit uncharted territories.
It was not a rule however: In , Circus Williams did a successful Austrian tour on its own, with a long halt in Wien. Yet sadly, tragedy struck again: In , Alfons was killed in a car accident in Belgium, where the circus was touring.